A gendarme confronted the soldiers and asked that they leave, but he was taken prisoner. Up until 15 October 1941, a further 1,500 Jews left the country on the orders of the authorities. Despite the overbearing distraction of the occupation, the Luxembourgish people attempted to lead their lives as normally as possible. Furthermore, the royal family and the government had silently fled into exile.  The Gestapo accompanied them to France and Spain but, since they were rejected there, they went on an endless odyssey.  On 4 January 1940, the Cabinet convened under Grand Duchess Charlotte and outlined steps to be taken in the event of a German invasion.  German soldiers began moving through south-eastern Luxembourg, crossing the Moselle River at Remich and Wasserbillig, and headed towards the capital, Luxembourg City. In October 1941, the German occupiers took a survey of Luxembourgish civilians who were asked to state their nationality, their mother tongue and their racial group, but contrary to German expectations, 95% answered "Luxembourgish" to each question. " This support was forthcoming from all parties, but only on the condition that each was invited into the government; Thorn was left with no choice but to afford them this. Eyschen was a familiar and overwhelmingly popular leader, and all factions put their utmost faith in his ability to steer Luxembourg through the diplomatic minefield that was occupation.  Although many Luxembourgers were on near-starvation level dietary intakes, the country managed to avoid famine. The Chamber of Deputies voted to review Article 32, but Kauffmann refused to allow it, seeing the redefinition of the source of national sovereignty as covert republicanism. The German occupation of Luxembourg during World War I was the first of two military occupations of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by Germany in the 20th century.  To slow the food supply's diminishment, Michel Welter, the Director-General for both agriculture and commerce, banned the export of food from Luxembourg.  Such objections were not received well by the German authorities. Collections of food and money were also made to help the families of those who were arrested, deported, or fired from their jobs. Everywhere, they were fêted as liberators, in the spirit that Pershing had intended to inspire, and were met by bands and civilians waving flags, and were adorned with flowers. The resulting grand coalition cabinet included every leading light in Luxembourgish politics; besides Thorn himself, there were the conservatives Léon Kauffmann and Antoine Lefort, the socialist leader Dr Michel Welter, and the liberal Léon Moutrier. Ultimately, the constitution was amended to prohibit the government from entering into secret treaties, to improve deputies' pay (hitherto set at just 5 francs a day), to introduce universal suffrage, and to change the plurality voting system to a proportional one. The ban applied to official and administrative usage as well as everyday life. President of the Chamber François Altwies asked French troops to intervene. The Chamber of Deputies was steadfastly opposed; the Party of the Right held only 20 seats out of 52, but they formed the plurality. The Nazis concentrated most of the remaining 800 Jews in the old monastery of Cinqfontaines (Fünfbrunnen). In 1911, Prime Minister Paul Eyschen commissioned an engineer to evaluate Germany's western railroad network, particularly the likelihood that Germany would occupy Luxembourg to suit its logistical needs for a campaign in France. By the evening of 10 May 1940, most of the country, with the exception of the south, was occupied by German forces. The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II began in May 1940 after the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg was invaded by Nazi Germany. , Captain Archen repeatedly alerted his superiors at Longwy of the invasion, but his reports never reached the 3rd Army at Metz. The economic councillor and the chancellor of the German legation were detained for questioning regarding allegations that they had used legation cars to organise subversive activities within the country. It was clear to all that the good conduct of the Luxembourgish government, if fully receptive to the needs of the German military administrators, could guarantee Luxembourg's continued self-government, at least in the short-term.  Belgium, which had hoped to either annex Luxembourg or force it into personal union, grudgingly recognised Charlotte on 13 February. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Treaty of Versailles, Annex V(5), 28 June 1919, Treaty of Versailles, Article 268(c), 28 June 1919, German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, Deportations from East Prussia during World War I, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_occupation_of_Luxembourg_during_World_War_I&oldid=970843139, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with German-language sources (de), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 August 2020, at 18:55. Accompanied by her husband, Prince Felix, her mother, Dowager Grand Duchess Marie Anne, and members of the Grand-Ducal suite, she departed for the border village of Redange.